Procedures

Arthrogram and Arthrography

An arthrogram is an X-ray examination of a bone joint. This examination is commonly performed on the shoulder, wrist and knee. It requires injection of a contrast agent—a type of dye—into the joint being examined.

Barium Enema

A barium enema is a diagnostic X-ray examination of the colon (the large intestine) to check for colon cancer, polyps, diverticula or other abnormalities.

What to expect

An inert natural compound, barium sulfate, is introduced into the colon through a narrow tube placed into the rectum. Air often is put into the colon through the same tube. The barium outlines the interior surface of the colon.


While the colon is being filled, the radiologist watches on a video monitor and takes X-ray images with a fluoroscopic X-ray machine. You may be asked to move into different positions to reveal all parts of your colon on the X-rays.


After your colon is full and the radiologist has taken images with the fluoroscope, the technologist also will take a few additional X-rays. Your colon will feel full at this point in the exam, but unless some cramping occurs, most patients do not experience any pain. After the X-rays are checked, you will be allowed to go to the rest room. The procedure takes 45 to 60 minutes to complete.

Hysterosalpingography (HSG)

Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is an X-ray procedure enabling examination and diagnosis of medical conditions of the uterus and fallopian tubes. A hysterosalpingogram generally is ordered to check for blockage in the fallopian tubes causing infertility, or to perform an examination of the fallopian tubes in preparation for tubal reversal surgery. An HSG examination also can be useful in diagnosing uterine tumors, tubal adhesions or injuries to reproductive tissues.

What to expect

You will be asked to recline on an X-ray table and will receive preparation similar to that for a pelvic exam. Under sterile conditions, the doctor will insert a speculum into your vagina, clean your cervix, and then insert a catheter (a slender tube) into your uterus. A small amount of a contrast dye is injected via the catheter through the cervix, filling the uterus and fallopian tubes. The dye makes the organs visible under X-ray exposure. The radiologist or technologist will take a few X-ray images to document what appears on the video monitor.


The actual procedure requires only 20 to 30 minutes to complete, but you should expect your visit to the X-ray department to last about 45 minutes, including registration and preparation.

Intravenous Pyelogram - IVP

When you schedule your appointment, we will inform you about any specific preparations depending upon the specific procedure your doctor has ordered. Please contact the Scheduling Department at 949-764-5573 if you have any questions.

If you are currently receiving Dialysis; please schedule your dialysis to follow your procedure with Contrast or the following day. It is imperative you have dialysis no later than the following day after you have received contrast for your procedure.

Lumbar Puncture

Lumbar puncture (also called a spinal tap) is a minimally invasive, image-guided diagnostic test that involves the removal of a small amount of cerebrospinal fluid—the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord—or an injection of medication or other substance into the lumbar (or lower) region of the spinal column.

Myelography and Myelogram

Myelography is an X-ray examination of the structures within the spinal column.

What to expect

The myelogram examination requires injection of a contrast medium (dye) into the spinal canal to enable it to appear on the X-rays. First the skin of the lower back is cleansed, and an NHRA radiologist injects a small amount of local anesthetic to numb the area. That’s followed by an injection of the contrast material into the lower spine, guided by a fluoroscope. The radiologist then studies the spinal canal with the patient in various positions.

The radiologist may tilt the table somewhat to move the liquid along the spinal canal. You will be asked to assume specific positions and to hold your breath while film exposures are being made. Following the examination, the contrast material will dissipate harmlessly. A CT scan of the spine is always ordered to follow a myelogram.

Your visit to the X-ray department probably will last 60 to 90 minutes, although the actual exam takes about 45 minutes. When combined with a CT scan, the procedure requires more time.

Following the procedure, you will be escorted to a recovery area where vital signs and general patient conditions are observed for one to two hours. You will be encouraged to take fluids at this time to help eliminate the contrast material from your body and to prevent headache
One of our neuroradiologists will interpret the films and prepare a report, which will be sent to your physician.

Upper Gastrointestinal – UGI Tract Examination

The upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract extends from the esophagus to the end of the small bowel. Three separate X-ray examinations may be done, either alone or in combination, to produce images of this system. The exams are:
Esophagram, an examination of the canal in the throat that leads from the mouth to the opening of the stomach
Upper GI (UGI), an examination of the stomach
Small-bowel follow-through (SBFT), an examination of the small intestine

What to expect


Each of these exams requires drinking a contrast medium to make the organs visible on X-rays. You will be given either a barium solution (a thick, chalky substance) or a thinner iodine-based drink. The radiologist will determine which contrast will be used, based on your symptoms and history.
For an esophagram or UGI, the radiologist will use a fluoroscope to watch and take images while you drink. For an SBFT examination, you’ll first drink the contrast and then a technologist will periodically take films of your abdomen until the contrast has traversed the entire length of your small intestine (about 33 feet). When the contrast reaches your large intestine, the radiologist will take some fluoroscopic images.


Esophagrams and UGI exams take about 15 to 30 minutes. A small-bowel exam may take one to three hours, depending upon the speed with which the contrast moves through your small intestine. You will be allowed to sit up, walk around and drink small amounts of water during the intervals between image-taking.


A radiologist will interpret the images and send a report to your physician.