Arthrogram and Arthrography
An arthrogram is an X-ray examination of a bone joint. This examination
is commonly performed on the shoulder, wrist and knee. It requires injection
of a contrast agent—a type of dye—into the joint being examined.
A barium enema is a diagnostic X-ray examination of the colon (the large
intestine) to check for colon cancer, polyps, diverticula or other abnormalities.
What to expect
An inert natural compound, barium sulfate, is introduced into the colon
through a narrow tube placed into the rectum. Air often is put into the
colon through the same tube. The barium outlines the interior surface
of the colon.
While the colon is being filled, the radiologist watches on a video monitor
and takes X-ray images with a fluoroscopic X-ray machine. You may be asked
to move into different positions to reveal all parts of your colon on
After your colon is full and the radiologist has taken images with the
fluoroscope, the technologist also will take a few additional X-rays.
Your colon will feel full at this point in the exam, but unless some cramping
occurs, most patients do not experience any pain. After the X-rays are
checked, you will be allowed to go to the rest room. The procedure takes
45 to 60 minutes to complete.
Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is an X-ray procedure enabling examination
and diagnosis of medical conditions of the uterus and fallopian tubes.
A hysterosalpingogram generally is ordered to check for blockage in the
fallopian tubes causing infertility, or to perform an examination of the
fallopian tubes in preparation for tubal reversal surgery. An HSG examination
also can be useful in diagnosing uterine tumors, tubal adhesions or injuries
to reproductive tissues.
What to expect
You will be asked to recline on an X-ray table and will receive preparation
similar to that for a pelvic exam. Under sterile conditions, the doctor
will insert a speculum into your vagina, clean your cervix, and then insert
a catheter (a slender tube) into your uterus. A small amount of a contrast
dye is injected via the catheter through the cervix, filling the uterus
and fallopian tubes. The dye makes the organs visible under X-ray exposure.
The radiologist or technologist will take a few X-ray images to document
what appears on the video monitor.
The actual procedure requires only 20 to 30 minutes to complete, but you
should expect your visit to the X-ray department to last about 45 minutes,
including registration and preparation.
Intravenous Pyelogram - IVP
When you schedule your appointment, we will inform you about any specific
preparations depending upon the specific procedure your doctor has ordered.
Please contact the Scheduling Department at 949-764-5573 if you have any
If you are currently receiving Dialysis; please schedule your dialysis
to follow your procedure with Contrast or the following day. It is imperative
you have dialysis no later than the following day after you have received
contrast for your procedure.
Lumbar puncture (also called a spinal tap) is a minimally invasive, image-guided
diagnostic test that involves the removal of a small amount of cerebrospinal
fluid—the fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord—or
an injection of medication or other substance into the lumbar (or lower)
region of the spinal column.
Myelography and Myelogram
Myelography is an X-ray examination of the structures within the spinal column.
What to expect
The myelogram examination requires injection of a contrast medium (dye)
into the spinal canal to enable it to appear on the X-rays. First the
skin of the lower back is cleansed, and an NHRA radiologist injects a
small amount of local anesthetic to numb the area. That’s followed
by an injection of the contrast material into the lower spine, guided
by a fluoroscope. The radiologist then studies the spinal canal with the
patient in various positions.
The radiologist may tilt the table somewhat to move the liquid along the
spinal canal. You will be asked to assume specific positions and to hold
your breath while film exposures are being made. Following the examination,
the contrast material will dissipate harmlessly. A CT scan of the spine
is always ordered to follow a myelogram.
Your visit to the X-ray department probably will last 60 to 90 minutes,
although the actual exam takes about 45 minutes. When combined with a
CT scan, the procedure requires more time.
Following the procedure, you will be escorted to a recovery area where
vital signs and general patient conditions are observed for one to two
hours. You will be encouraged to take fluids at this time to help eliminate
the contrast material from your body and to prevent headache
One of our neuroradiologists will interpret the films and prepare a report,
which will be sent to your physician.
Upper Gastrointestinal – UGI Tract Examination
The upper gastrointestinal (UGI) tract extends from the esophagus to the
end of the small bowel. Three separate X-ray examinations may be done,
either alone or in combination, to produce images of this system. The
Esophagram, an examination of the canal in the throat that leads from
the mouth to the opening of the stomach
Upper GI (UGI), an examination of the stomach
Small-bowel follow-through (SBFT), an examination of the small intestine
What to expect
Each of these exams requires drinking a contrast medium to make the organs
visible on X-rays. You will be given either a barium solution (a thick,
chalky substance) or a thinner iodine-based drink. The radiologist will
determine which contrast will be used, based on your symptoms and history.
For an esophagram or UGI, the radiologist will use a fluoroscope to watch
and take images while you drink. For an SBFT examination, you’ll
first drink the contrast and then a technologist will periodically take
films of your abdomen until the contrast has traversed the entire length
of your small intestine (about 33 feet). When the contrast reaches your
large intestine, the radiologist will take some fluoroscopic images.
Esophagrams and UGI exams take about 15 to 30 minutes. A small-bowel exam
may take one to three hours, depending upon the speed with which the contrast
moves through your small intestine. You will be allowed to sit up, walk
around and drink small amounts of water during the intervals between image-taking.
A radiologist will interpret the images and send a report to your physician.