The evolution and success of many neurological and neurosurgical treatments are directly related to the imaging modalities available to determine the exact
location and characteristics of brain disorders.
Hoag is committed to providing the highest quality neuro diagnostic and
interventional imaging services, combining the expertise of highly skilled
sub-specialized neuroradiologists with the latest in state-of-the-art imaging
Hoag is at the forefront with both the sophisticated technology and the
clinical expertise needed to provide the very best neuroimaging available.
Computed Tomographic Angiography (CTA)
Computed Tomography Angiography (CTA) is a non-invasive 3D imaging study that
provides reconstructive imaging of the blood flow through brain vasculature.
Utilizing X-rays to visualize blood flow in the arteries, CTA displays anatomic
detail of blood vessels, producing three-dimensional images of the vessels,
which can be rotated in any direction and sliced to better examine individual
arteries. And as the technique provides neuroradiologists with clear
visualization of narrowed and clogged arteries that can cause stroke, they can
detect coronary artery disease at an early stage when medication and lifestyle
modification can reverse the course of the condition. CTA is also commonly used
- Obtain precise information about lesions that involve the bone or skull base
- Place of an invasive angiogram to determine whether a stent is serving its
- Image patients who are unable to undergo MR scanning due to pacemakers,
metal implants or inability to fit in the MR scanner.
Computed Tomography (CT)
Hoag’s highly advanced multi-detector (64-slice) Computed Tomography (CT)
scanners perform vascular, anatomic, and physiologic imaging of the brain. This
sophisticated equipment can take sliced images as thin as 0.5 millimeters,
offering exquisite detail of subtle brain anatomy and three-dimensional
reconstruction of vascular and brain structures. In the neurosciences, CT is
most often used to:
- Diagnose an acute neurologic injury, such as stroke
- Detect a blood clot or brain hemorrhage in patients with stroke
- Detect brain damage, skull fracture or hemorrhage in patients with head
- Detect a ruptured or leaking aneurysm in patients with sudden, severe
- Detect brain tumors
- Guide the passage of a needle during brain biopsy
- Establish treatment planning prior to radiation therapy on the
Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA)
Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) is a non-invasive diagnostic 3D imaging
exam that is obtained in Hoag’s state-of-the-art 3Tesla MRI scanner. The blood
vessels of the brain and their internal flow rates are visualized and
reconstructed in three dimensions. This sophisticated technology is used to:
- Detect, diagnose and aid the treatment of stroke and blood vessel
- Detect diseased intracranial arteries
- Detect atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries
- Detect asymptomatic aneurysms
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides clear and detailed images of
internal organs and tissues using radio waves and a strong magnetic field. In
the neurosciences, MRI is used to:
- Diagnose brain tumors, stroke and chronic nervous system disorders such as
- Detect tissue abnormalities in patients with disorders of the eyes and inner
- Document brain abnormalities in patients with dementia
- Image diseases of the pituitary gland
Hoag’s MRI services
include 3Tesla (most advanced)
high-resolution brain imaging with chemical analysis available through
Multivoxel MR Spectroscopy (MRS) as well as functional MR (f-MR).
Magnetic resonance imaging, or MRI, is a non-invasive test that uses magnetic
waves to take two- and three-dimensional pictures of the inside of the body. An
MRI scanner can look at body parts, organs, and tissues, from head to toe. A 3T
MRI is an advanced scanner, allowing for faster scans, clearer images, and more
accurate diagnoses compared to conventional MRI.
These are major advantages for neurosurgeons trying to more effectively
remove brain tumors. Multivoxel MR Spectroscopy (MRS) imaging is used
extensively for mapping the brain’s anatomy to:
- Distinguish between healthy tissue and abnormal or damaged areas
- View blood vessels in tumors
- Locate the leading edge or growing areas of a tumor
Functional MR (f-MR)
Functional MR (f-MR) is a non-invasive imaging study that involves the
measurement of dynamic blood oxygen level-dependent signal parameters within the
brain. f-MR illustrates how the brain thinks and initiates activities by
monitoring brain activity as the patient is asked to perform tasks such as
finger tapping or recitation of number sequences.
These activities cause changes in chemical composition of involved areas of
the brain. f-MR produces images of the involved areas of the brain, pinpointing
abnormalities and identifying important areas of the brain that control
movement, speech and senses—areas to be avoided during surgery. f-MR is also
used to acquire real-time, 3D information of the brain that is used in
conjunction with Hoag’s Gamma Knife and stereotactic biopsy system.
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Positron Emission Tomography or PET is an imaging technique that visualizes
the physiology of human anatomy using a positron emitting radiopharmaceutical.
Unlike CT scanning, which looks primarily at structure and shape, PET evaluates
changes in chemistry, function and metabolism of brain tissues. Because PET
provides a view of the metabolic activity of tumor cells and the impact
treatment is having on that activity, in the neurosciences, PET is used to:
- Determine tumor response to radiation or chemotherapy treatments
- Locate growing tumors
- Aid in diagnosing recurrence after treatment
- Help differentiate new tumor growth from areas damaged by
PET/CT is a new imaging tool that combines two scan techniques in one exam -
a PET scan and a CT scan. PET/CT is mainly used for diagnosis, staging or
restaging malignant disease and metastases and evaluation of treatment response.
It may also be used to differentiate dementia verses Alzheimer's disease. The
two procedures together provide information about the location, nature of and
the extent of the lesion.
CT stands for Computerized Tomography (commonly known as a CAT scan). During
the CT scan, the scanner emits X-rays, which go through the patient to
detectors. The computer uses this information to generate cross-sectional images
of anatomical structures.
PET stands for Positron Emission Tomography. PET scans measure metabolic
activity and molecular function by using a radioactive glucose injection. The
PET scanner detects the radiation emitted from the patient, and the computer
generates three-dimensional images of tissue function or cell activity in the
tissues of your body. These functional images can detect disease earlier than
the anatomic information gained from CT alone.